The CEA Registry Blog

Apr 23

by CEA Registry Team 4/23/2012 3:13 PM  RssIcon

Despite widespread agreement that stakeholder engagement is needed in patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) and comparative effectiveness research (CER), no taxonomy exists currently to guide researchers and policy makers on how to address this need. A new framework, published this week in the Journal of General Internal Medicine by my colleagues and me, is offered to assist investigators in addressing this need. [1]  We followed an iterative process, including several stages of external stakeholder review, to address three questions:
• Who are the stakeholders in healthcare research?
• What roles and responsibilities can stakeholders have in research?
• How can researchers start engaging stakeholders?

We introduce a flexible taxonomy called the 7Ps of Stakeholder Engagement and Six Stages of Research for identifying stakeholders and developing engagement strategies across the full spectrum of research activities. 

The 7Ps Framework to Identify Stakeholders in PCOR and CER

The 7Ps framework identifies key groups to consider for engagement. The first, patients and the public, represents the current and potential consumers of patient-centered health care and population focused public health. The second is providers, including individuals and organizations that provide care to patients and populations. Purchasers, the individuals and entities responsible for underwriting the costs of health care, such as employers, make up the third group. The fourth group consists of payers who are responsible for reimbursement of medical care, such as insurers. The fifth is composed of public policy makers and policy advocates working in the non-governmental sector. Product makers, representing drug and device manufacturers, comprise the sixth group, and principal investigators, or other researchers, make up the seventh.
The Six-Stage Model for PCOR and CER

The Six Stages Model illustrates six stages in the translational spectrum of comparative effectiveness research. Each stage is an activity that maybe carried out by researchers and research organizations, as illustrated by the light-shaded oval. Researchers and research organizations are surrounded by stakeholders, as illustrated by the dark-shaded oval. The model illustrates both a sequential flow from evidence prioritization to feedback and assessment as well as a cyclical, iterative process.

We invite individuals and organizations to participate in demonstrations and evaluations of this taxonomy.


For more information, see the paper online or contact me directly at


- Thomas W. Concannon, Ph.D.


1. Concannon TW, Meissner P, Grunbaum J, McElwee N, Guise J, John Santa, Conway PH, Daudelin D, Morrato EH, and Leslie LK.  A New Taxonomy for Stakeholder Engagement in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.  Journal of General Internal Medicine.  2012 DOI: 10.1007/s11606-012-2037-1

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